Introduction: A variety of genetic predisposing factors and environmental factors are known to influence the pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes (T1D). This study intended to investigate the association of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and interleukin 2 receptor subunit alpha (IL2RA) gene polymorphisms with type 1 diabetes in children of northwest of Iran.
Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted by salting-out method. PCR amplification and direct sequencing methods were used for genotyping of CTLA4 (exon 1) and IL2RA (intron 1) genes in all patients and controls. SNPStats was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p values.
Results: In this study, the frequency of G allele and GG genotype of CTLA-4 (+49A/G) polymorphism in T1D patients were significantly different from those in the controls (26% vs. 11%, p = 0.006). Moreover, a significant difference was observed between patients and control group in the allele frequencies of the new SNP (chr2:203868145) that was identified in exon one of CTLA4 (14% vs. 3%, p = 0.006). The results showed that the GG homozygous genotype of +49 A>G was associated with increased glycemic level in T1D patients in the study population (95% CI = 10.47, p = 0.0067). However, no significant association was found between IL2RA (ss52580101C>A) polymorphism and T1D patients (2% vs. 4%, p = 0.41).
Conclusion: The results further support the association of T1D with +49A>G SNP in the CTLA4 gene in the population of northwest of Iran. However, no significant relationship was observed between ss52580101C>A polymorphism of IL2RA gene and T1D in this study.