Introduction: Elaeagnus spp. is one in the family of riparian trees growing near the rivers or water corridors. In this family, Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is famous because of its medical applications.
Methods: A comprehensive review was performed to extract the related data from published literature.
Results: Traditionally, it has been used as an analgesic, antipyretic and diuretic herbal medicine. A large number of compounds have been derived from Russian olive and made this plant a source of flavonoids, alkaloids, minerals and vitamins. Although the purpose of most studies is to use this plant for preparation of herbal medicines and as an ingredient for drug formulation, there is no available drug dosage form commercially.
Conclusion: This review aimed to provide the most important documentary information on the active components of Elaeagnus spp. and their relation to the pharmacological properties and compare them with reported medicinal effects.