Bioimpacts. 2024;14(3): 27510.
doi: 10.34172/bi.2023.27510
  Abstract View: 187
  PDF Download: 57

Original Article

Poly (acrylic acid)/tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles scaffold enriched with exosomes for cell-free therapy in bone tissue engineering: An in vivo evaluation

Nahid Moradi 1 ORCID logo, Mina Soufi-Zomorrod 1* ORCID logo, Simzar Hosseinzadeh 2,3, Masoud Soleimani 1,3

1 Hematology and Cell Therapy Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, ‎Iran
2 Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical ‎Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, ‎Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Email: m.soufi@modares.ac.ir


Introduction: This study aimed to assess the potential of poly (acrylic acid)/tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles (PAA/triCaPNPs) scaffold in terms of biocompatibility and osteoconductivity properties the in-vivo evaluation as well as to investigate the performance of PAA/triCaPNPs scaffold (with or without exosomes derived from UC-MSCs) for bone regeneration of rat critical-sized defect.
Methods: PAA/triCaPNPs scaffold was made from acrylic acid (AA) monomer, N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA), sodium bicarbonate (SBC), and ammonium persulfate (APS) through freeze-drying method. For in vivo evaluation, we randomly divided 24 rats into three groups. The rat calvarial bone defects were treated as follows: (1) Control group: defects without any treatment, (2) scaffold group: defects treated with scaffold only, (3) scaffold+exo group: defects treated with scaffold enriched with exosomes (1 μg/μL, 150 μg per rat). Eight- and 12-weeks post-surgery, half of the animals were sacrificed and bone regeneration was examined through micro-computerized tomography (µ-CT), histological staining, and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Results: Quantitative analysis based on µ-CT scan images at 8 and 12 weeks post-implantation clearly indicated that healing rate for defects that were filled with scaffold enriched with exosome was significantly higher than defects filled with scaffold without exosome. The H&E and Masson staining results revealed that more new bone-like form developed in the scaffold+exo group than that in control and scaffold groups. Further, IHC staining for osteocalcin and CD31 confirmed that more bone healing in the scaffold+exo group at 12 weeks could be associated with osteogenesis and angiogenesis concurrently.
Conclusion: In the present study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of PAA/triCaPNPs scaffold as a carrier of human UC-MSC-derived exosome to achieve the exosome-controlled release on calvarial bone defect. The in vivo results indicated that the exosome-enriched scaffold could effectively minify the defect area and improve the bone healing in rat model, and as such it could be an option for exosome-based therapy.
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Abstract View: 187

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Submitted: 04 Jul 2022
Revision: 09 Dec 2022
Accepted: 30 Jan 2023
ePublished: 19 Jul 2023
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