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Bioimpacts. 2024;14(2): 27567.
doi: 10.34172/bi.2023.27567
  Abstract View: 352
  PDF Download: 274

Original Article

Protective effects of limb remote ischemic per-conditioning on the heart injury induced by renal ischemic-reperfusion through the interaction of the apelin with the RAS/iNOS pathway

Sahar Janfeshan 1 ORCID logo, Fatemeh Masjedi 1 ORCID logo, Zeinab Karimi 1* ORCID logo

1 Shiraz Nephro-Urology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Email: zkarimi@sums.ac.ir

Abstract

Introduction: Remote ischemic conditioning upregulates endogenous protective pathways in response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. This study tested the hypothesis that limb remote ischemic per- conditioning (RIPerC) exerts cardioprotective effects via the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/apelin pathway.
Methods: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) was induced by bilateral occlusion of the renal pedicles for 60 minutes, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion; sham-operated rats served as controls. RIPerC was induced by four cycles (5 minutes) of limb ischemia-reperfusion along with bilateral renal ischemia. The functional disturbance was evaluated by renal (BUN and creatinine) and cardiac (troponin I and lactate dehydrogenase) injury biomarkers.
Results: Renal I/R injury increased renal and cardiac injury biomarkers that were reduced in the RIPerC group. Histopathological findings of the kidney and heart were also suggestive of amelioration injury-induced changes in the RIPerC group. Assessment of cardiac electrophysiology revealed that RIPerC ameliorated the decline in P wave duration without significantly affecting other cardiac electrophysiological changes. Further, renal I/R injury increased the plasma (322.40±34.01 IU/L), renal (8.27±1.10 mIU/mg of Protein), and cardiac (68.28±10.28 mIU/mg of protein) angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activities in association with elevations in the plasma and urine nitrite (25.47±2.01 & 16.62±3.05 μmol/L) and nitrate (15.47±1.33 & 5.01±0.96 μmol/L) levels; these changes were reversed by RIPerC. Further, renal ischemia-reperfusion injury significantly (P=0.047) decreased the renal (but not cardiac) apelin mRNA expression, while renal and cardiac ACE2 (P<0.05) and iNOS (P=0.043) mRNA expressions were significantly increased compared to the sham group; these effects were largely reversed by RIPerC.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that RIPerC protects the heart against renal ischemia- reperfusion injury, likely via interaction of the apelin with the RAS/iNOS pathway.

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Submitted: 14 Aug 2022
Revision: 28 Jan 2023
Accepted: 13 Mar 2023
ePublished: 08 Oct 2023
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