Bioimpacts. 2016;6(1): 49-67.
doi: 10.15171/bi.2016.07
PMID: 27340624
PMCID: PMC4916551
Scopus ID: 84977080654
WOSID: 000388813100008
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Advanced drug delivery and targeting technologies for the ocular diseases

Jaleh Barar 1 ORCID logo, Ayuob Aghanejad 1, Marziyeh Fathi 1, Yadollah Omidi 1* ORCID logo

1 Research Centre for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran


Introduction: Ocular targeted therapy has enormously been advanced by implementation of new methods of drug delivery and targeting using implantable drug delivery systems (DDSs) or devices (DDDs), stimuli-responsive advanced biomaterials, multimodal nanomedicines, cell therapy modalities and medical bioMEMs. These technologies tackle several ocular diseases such as inflammation-based diseases (e.g., scleritis, keratitis, uveitis, iritis, conjunctivitis, chorioretinitis, choroiditis, retinitis, retinochoroiditis), ocular hypertension and neuropathy, age-related macular degeneration and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) due to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Such therapies appear to provide ultimate treatments, even though much more effective, yet biocompatible, noninvasive therapies are needed to control some disabling ocular diseases/disorders.
Methods: In the current study, we have reviewed and discussed recent advancements on ocular targeted therapies.
Results: On the ground that the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses of ophthalmic drugs need special techniques, most of ocular DDSs/devices developments have been designed to localized therapy within the eye. Application of advanced DDSs such as Subconjunctival insert/implants (e.g., latanoprost implant, Gamunex-C), episcleral implant (e.g., LX201), cationic emulsions (e.g., Cationorm™, Vekacia™, Cyclokat™), intac/punctal plug DDSs (latanoprost punctal plug delivery system, L-PPDS), and intravitreal implants (I-vitaion™, NT-501, NT- 503, MicroPump, Thethadur, IB-20089 Verisome™, Cortiject, DE-102, Retisert™, Iluvein™ and Ozurdex™) have significantly improved the treatment of ocular diseases. However, most of these DDSs/devices are applied invasively and even need surgical procedures. Of these, use of de novo technologies such as advanced stimuli-responsive nanomaterials, multimodal nanosystems (NSs)/nanoconjugates (NCs), biomacromolecualr scaffolds, and bioengineered cell therapies need to be further advanced to get better compliance and higher clinical impacts.
Despite mankind successful battle on ocular diseases, our challenge will continue to battle the ocular disease that happen with aging. Yet, we need to understand the molecular aspects of eye diseases in a holistic way and develop ultimate treatment protocols preferably as non-invasive systems.

Keywords: Eye diseases, Intraocular drug delivery, Ocular barriers, Ocular pharmacotherapy, Ophthalmic implants, Ocular drug targeting, Ophthalmology, Targeted the
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Submitted: 05 Dec 2015
Accepted: 13 Feb 2016
ePublished: 30 Mar 2016
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