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Bioimpacts. 2024;14(3): 25288.
doi: 10.34172/bi.2023.25288
  Abstract View: 254
  PDF Download: 125

Original Article

Micro-extraction, pre-concentration, and microfluidic-based separation of organophosphate insecticides followed by the miniaturized electrochemical detection system

Abdollah Abdollahi Aghdam 1,2, Mohsen Chamanara 1,3 ORCID logo, Reza Laripour 4 ORCID logo, Mohsen Ebrahimi 1,3* ORCID logo

1 Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of ‎Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Biomedicine Institute, Tabriz ‎University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran ‎
3 Toxicology Research Center, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of ‎Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Mohsen Ebrahimi, Email: ebrahimim@ajaums.ac.ir

Abstract

Introduction: A new analytical method based on the coupling of microextraction and microfluidics was developed and investigated for the pre-concentration, separation, and electrochemical detection of fenitrothion (FT) and parathion (PA) at the sub-ppm concentrations.
Methods: In the first step, the microchip capillary electrophoresis technique was used to serve as a separation and detection system. Analytes were injected in the 40 mm long microchannel with 10 mm sidearms. Then, they were separated by applying a direct electrical field (+1800 V) between the buffer and detection reservoirs. 2-(n-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer (20 mM, pH 5) was used as a running buffer. The electrochemical detection was performed using three Pt microelectrodes with the width of working, counter, and reference electrodes (50, 250, and 250 µm, respectively) in the out-channel approach.
Results: The system was devised to have the optimum detection potential equal to -1.2 V vs. pseudo-reference electrode. The dimensions of the SU-8 channel have 20 µm depth and 50 µm width. In the second step, an air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction technique was used to extract and preconcentration of analytes from human blood plasma. Then, 1, 2 di-bromoethan was used as extractant solvent, the analytes were preconcentrated, and the sedimented solvent (50 µL) was evaporated in a 60 ˚C water bath followed by substitution of running buffer containing 10% ethanol. The optimal extraction cycles were found to be 8 with adding 1% NaCl to the aqueous phase. Analyzing time of the mentioned analytes was less than 100s, the precision range was 3.3 – 8.2 with a linear range of 0.8–100 ppm and 1.2–100 ppm for FT and PA, respectively. The extraction recoveries were about 91% and 87% for FT and PA, respectively. The detection limits for FT and PA were 240 and 360 ppb, respectively. Finally, the reliability of the method was investigated by GC-FID.
Conclusion: The proposed method and device were validated and can be used as in situ and portable detection systems for detecting fenitrothion and parathion insecticides.
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Submitted: 22 Feb 2022
Revision: 20 Jun 2022
Accepted: 02 Jul 2022
ePublished: 10 Oct 2023
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